Top 10 Reasons for Migration
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First things first, let’s understand what exactly migration is. Migration, in layman’s language, means the movement of a person from one place to another; this can be internal or on an international basis. Migration would not necessarily be by a choice or willingness but rather forced out of situations. The causes for migration can be classified as “economic migration, social migration, political migration, and environmental migration” and the factors for migration can be summed up or called summation of various “Push (reason to leave the area)” and “Pull (reasons to move to the area)” factors.
The generally identified classification for causes of migration are:
- Economic Migration refers to migrating for career growth or for job search.
- Social Migration refers to relocating in search of better life quality or to be near to family and relatives.
- Political Migration is in situations where the person is willing to escape adverse scenarios like war or political persecution.
- Environmental Migrations are done in situations of natural disasters.
Top 10 Causes of Migration
The top 10 causes of migration are as follows:
1. For Education purposes
- Studying abroad has gained tremendous interest among youngsters. Some opt for it to have better quality education while some for exploring new places and living.
- According to a 2021 report by Immigration World, about 1,133,749 Indian students traveled abroad for different educational purposes.
- According to the study of 2021, UAE attracted the highest number of Indian students, followed by Canada and the USA.
- 70% of Indian students move abroad in search of specialized courses compared to the 30% who enroll for degree courses.
- Another vital unforgettable statistic is that 80% of Indian students moving abroad are for graduation, which is influenced by the elders and only about 20% are for the post grads, which they opt for themselves.
2. For Career Enhancement
- Willing to work abroad for a long time has been considered elite in the Indian context. Irrespective of the professions, people are willing to migrate abroad, be it to explore new places, better employment opportunities, for stability in life (economic gains), etc.
- According to a report by The Economic Times, more than 66% of Indians are seeking to work abroad.
- Under the best destination for migrants category in the World Happiness Report, the USA ranks 16th after Finland, Canada and among the best origin countries, India ranks 133rd.
- Overpopulation is one of the growing concerns of developing and underdeveloped countries. The increased population, thus resulting in lesser opportunities or low wages, is one of the major causes of migration among Indian citizens.
- In the present times, increasing population is one of the growing concerns and causes of immigration in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
- The International Migrant Stock Report 2019 states India is one of the top sources of international migrants, constituting about 6.4% of the total migrant population, i.e. about 17.5 million in number.
4. Social and religious reasons
- It is general for us humans to have the willingness to reside among our community or religious groups.
- The Push factor involved here is a feeling of insecurity that is driving individuals.
- For example, in the current scenarios of Kashmir pandits and Punjabi, Hindus are migrating out of J&K and Punjab, respectively, and Muslims are moving out of Hindu-dominated areas to Muslim-dominated areas/ countries.
- Poverty is one of the major factors badly affecting the Indian economy. It is a condition where an individual household is not even able to meet basic living requirements. It can be a result of various reasons like low wages, constant increases in prices, unemployment, lack of awareness, etc.
- India has been witnessing a decline in poverty, but this has been at a very slow pace, and still, 20.8% (as of 2020) of the Population account for below-the-poverty-line families.
- Rural India witnesses massive migration (males) of skilled workforce aiming to at least be able to provide a standard of living to their families.
- 2019 statistics indicate that there are more than 169 million migrant workers worldwide.
- Indians’ most preferred destination of international migration is UAE and gulf countries and 70% of Indian skilled worker migrants belong to UP and Bihar.
6. Better Healthcare
- Health care is the fundamental right of every individual. Even though the technological advancement that India witnesses, people are willing to go abroad for better healthcare services.
- The Economic Times reports that as of 2021, there was a 20% increase in visa queries, with respect to the individuals willing to move abroad to attain better and safer health care services.
- The queries were not just for the USA, Canada, and Australia but also for less popular countries like New Zealand, Germany, the UK, etc., as well.
7. Political causes
- The migrants under this cause are the ones who are in search to experience political freedom compared to the restrictive lives back in their origin countries.
- Political push factors that are influencers are persecutions based on political identification, policy changes, or civil wars.
- For example, the recent Agriculture Policy changes made in India are believed to negatively impact with respect to the cultivators, resulting in a change of livelihood. Sri Lanka is one of the best examples of the political and economic crisis of 2022.
8. War or Conflict Zones
- War is one of the rare factors, which only includes push factors of migration. It is typically the scenario where the individual does not have much of a choice, rather to move or migrate and, most of the time, become a refugee.
- This is a situation where the choices, aspirations, and willingness of individuals do not have a role and the sole focus is to make it a place to secure lives.
- The recent Ukraine and Russia war has shown us how adversely wars affect the lives and livelihood of people not only in the war countries but as well have a huge impact on the other countries having business or dependencies with them.
9. Environmental factors
- The environment has always been a driving factor for migrators; these include natural disasters like floods, droughts, earthquakes, climate changes, etc.
- The International Organization for Migration defines environmental migrants as the ones who are obliged to leave their origins or home as a result of sudden or progressive environmental changes or conditions, as it has caused a major effect on their living conditions and lives. This movement could be temporarily or permanently, to internal (within the country) or international (abroad) migration.
- The estimates for these migrants are quite difficult. However, IOM states that the numbers could reach 1 billion by the end of 2050.
10. The ‘Why NOT?’ Factor
- As funny and bizarre as it might sound, there is a good set or chunk of people who migrate with the factor of why not try or explore something new. Also, sometimes out of influence, as if the other can go what’s wrong in me going or moving.
- Basically, these are the migrants prone to influence, be it friends, family or surrounding people.
Though there are many more micro factors that can be named and the list is surely very long. Migration has an undoubted impact on the individual or the family, no matter the cause of migration. Many times, migrants emigrate because they cannot live without or miss their family. This shows migration is not a result of totally or majorly an economic factor or political factor, but rather on emotional terms and attachments.
GetGIS, the sister company of IELTS Material & one of the leading organization providing global immigration consultant services to students and professionals, helps in understanding your cause and need, therefore delivering better guidance in choosing the country and efficient processing of the visa.
Migration patterns are a reflection of rotted issues in their origin country. Even though international migrants do not record a minimal percentage of the world population, it is still a fact that cannot be omitted, that is, the minimal migrants’ challenges and difficulties they face on arrival at destination countries regardless of the reason or status they enter with.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the types of migration?
1. Internal migration: This happens when people move within a country or region.
2. External migration: This happens when people move to another country or region.
3. Refugee migration: This is when people flee their homes because they fear persecution or violence.
Why do people leave their country?
What are the effects of migration?
What is the positive impact of migration?
Does migration help the economy?
How does migration affect the population?
Where do people migrate to?
Does migration improve the quality of life?
How can migration reduce poverty?
What are the 5 factors that influence migration?